The purpose of this study was to examine the level of cultural competence among faculty teaching in baccalaureate nursing programs in Louisiana and to identify associated factors. A survey was mailed to all 313 faculty members identified as actively involved in teaching in any baccalaureate nursing program in Louisiana and 163 valid responses were obtained.
The Cultural Diversity Questionnaire for Nurse Educators, a researcher designed instrument intended to measure cultural competence, was the instrument used. It included Likert-type items organized into five subscales representing the components of cultural competence according to Campinha- Bacote’s model of cultural competence (i.e., cultural awareness, cultural knowledge, cultural skills, cultural encounters and cultural desire), and a sixth subscale on the teaching of trancultural nursing concepts. An index was developed for the respondents overall cultural competence, and each cultural competence subscale as well as for the transcultural teaching behaviors subscale. The categories used to interpret the responses were five, ranging from least favorable (i.e., <1.5 = strongly disagree) to most favorable (> 4.5 = strongly agree).
The participants’ responses were in the “agree” response category for overall cultural competence, as well as for all subscale indexes, with the cultural awareness index being highest (4.14), and the cultural encounter index being lowest (3.56). Findings also indicated that the subscales cultural knowledge and cultural encounter explained 87% of the variance in overall cultural competence. The study results also indicated that a significant model does exist that enables the researcher to explain cultural competence on each subscale as well as overall cultural competence. The variable that had the highest positive correlation with each subscale index, as well as with the index of overall cultural competence, was continuing education in transcultural nursing within the previous five years. The nursing specialties women’s health, childbearing nursing and community health were also associated with increasing the indexes on selected subscales.
The researcher recommended faculty development programs on cultural competence and opportunities for cross cultural interaction as strategies for improving the overall cultural competence of nursing faculty. The researcher also encouraged further investigation of the differences in cultural competence among faculty in selected nursing specialties.