Title page for ETD etd-07102007-162132


Type of Document Dissertation
Author Businelle, Michael S.
Author's Email Address busi26@hotmail.com
URN etd-07102007-162132
Title The Relative Impact of Nicotine Dependence Versus Other Substance Dependence on Decision-Making
Degree Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)
Department Psychology
Advisory Committee
Advisor Name Title
Amy L. Copeland Committee Chair
Mike F. Hawkins Committee Member
Paula J. Geiselman Committee Member
William D. Gouvier Committee Member
Elaine M. Maccio Dean's Representative
Keywords
  • gambling task
  • decision-making
  • substance use disorders
  • smoking
  • delay discouting task
Date of Defense 2007-07-09
Availability unrestricted
Abstract
Research has indicated that individuals who are dependent on substances may have decision-making deficits that contribute to their continued substance use. Previous studies have shown that substance-dependent individuals focus more on the immediate rather than the delayed consequences of their actions, and more rapidly discount rewards that are available after a delay than individuals without a history of substance dependence. The present study compared the performance of four groups of individuals on the Gambling Task and the Delayed Discounting Task. The groups were (a) heavy smokers with comorbid substance dependence, (b) heavy smokers with no history of substance dependence, (c) substance dependent never smokers, and (d) never smokers with no history of substance dependence. Analysis revealed a main effect of substance use disorder status, such that individuals who were dependent on substances other than nicotine achieved lower net scores on the Gambling Task than those with no history of substance dependence (p = .05). A significant sex by substance use disorder status interaction was also identified (p = .01). Unexpectedly, no differences in Gambling Task performance were found between smokers and non-smokers. However, individuals who smoked and/or were dependent on another substance discounted delayed rewards on the Delay Discounting Task more rapidly than individuals with no history of smoking or other substance dependence (all p's < .05), and no differences in the performance of heavy smokers and substance-dependent individuals were found. Overall, findings indicate that smoking status may impact performance on the Delay Discounting Task, but does not impact Gambling Task performance. Although no sex differences in performance were identified on the Delayed Discounting Task, performance on the Gambling Task differed between men and women.
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