Traditional mayonnaise is manufactured with soybean oil (SBO) and egg-yolk containing ingredients. About 1/4 of American consumers have some forms of cardiovascular disease, accounting for >40% of all deaths in USA. Rice bran oil (RBO), a healthy lipid source, has cholesterol-lowering effects, and could be used to replace SBO in mayonnaise preparation. To take advantage of the health benefits associated with RBO, food products containing RBO need to be developed and characterized.
Cholesterol-free mayonnaise-type spreads containing RBO were developed using a constrained mixture design. Two studies were performed to determine sensory attributes driving acceptance and purchase intent and to optimize the formulation. In the first study, following a Balanced Incomplete Block design, consumers evaluated the products. The attributes that differentiated the formulations were color, odor, spreadability and mouthfeel. Taste, mouthfeel, and overall liking were identified as the attributes influencing purchase intent. Purchase intent increased after consumers were informed of RBO health benefits. The overall liking odds ratio decreased, meaning that consumers were willing to sacrifice product liking in favor of RBO health benefits. Combinations of 37-42% RBO, 53-57% water, and 1-6% SPC, were determined as yielding optimum formulations. For advanced product refinement taste and mouthfeel must be focused.
In study two, three flavored products were developed based on Formulation E: Sour Cream & Onion, Cheddar & Sour Cream, and Monterrey Jack. Consumers evaluated all flavored samples and a control based on preference ranking. There were significant differences among flavored spreads and control. Consumers were able to correctly differentiate between the flavored samples and the control. These differences were present among all flavors except among Sour Cream & Onion and Monterrey Jack. All flavored products were found acceptable and there was an increase in purchase intent after consumers were aware of the potential health benefits associated with product consumption.
The quality of the spreads was characterized through the development of sensory descriptors and determination of several physicochemical properties. Colorimetry, pH, and viscosity measurements showed no differences among the formulations over time. Oryzanol concentration increased with increased RBO content of the formulations.