Type of Document Dissertation Author Saucier, Craig Edward Author's Email Address email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org URN etd-06032008-192314 Title Mr. Kerr Goes to Washington: Lord Lothian and the Genesis of the Anglo-American Alliance, 1939-1940 Degree Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) Department History Advisory Committee
Advisor Name Title Veldman, Meredith Committee Chair Marchand, Suzanne L. Committee Member Shindo, Charles J. Committee Member Stater, Victor Louis Committee Member Stoner, James R., Jr. Dean's Representative Keywords
- American neutrality
- American complacency
- Franklin D. Roosevelt
- American isolationism
- American interventionism
- public relations
- British propaganda
- Phoney War
- Special Relationship
- Winston Churchill
Date of Defense 2008-04-18 Availability unrestricted AbstractThe purpose of this dissertation is to examine and assess the role of Philip Henry Kerr, eleventh Marquis of Lothian, the British ambassador to the United States from August 1939 to December 1940. While much of the historiography of Anglo-American relations during the Second World War focuses on the Roosevelt-Churchill axis, this dissertation contends that Lord Lothian played a vital, if not the principal, role in creating that axis and in forging closer relations during the vital months before Pearl Harbor. More generally, this dissertation contends that Lothian is a vital, if not the principal, architect of the ďSpecial Relationship.Ē Anglo-American relations during the interwar years were characterized by an underlying discord, caused by economic disparity, naval rivalry, and divergent approaches to international security. By December 1940, however, relations were stronger and closer, as many Americans came to appreciate that Britainís survival was critical to keeping the United States out of the war.
Although not exclusively responsible, Lothian played a significant role in affecting this transformation in public opinion. First, he established a British public relations apparatus and initiated a vigorous publicity campaign in the United States, which generated greater awareness of Britainís increasingly dire military predicament and more widespread popular support for Britain. Second, Lothian helped to broker the celebrated Destroyers-for-Bases deal, by which the United States agreed to provide Britain with fifty destroyers in return for land rights in various British possessions in the Western Hemisphere. Third, Lothian helped to lay the foundations for the Lend-Lease program. Following a brief autumn visit to Britain, he intimated to the American press that London was running out of cash with which to purchase American military supplies. He also urged Churchill to outline the realities of Britainís position in a long, detailed letter to Roosevelt. These two initiatives presented the Roosevelt administration with a comprehensive view of Britainís desperate situation that compelled the president to take action. The result was the Lend-Lease Act, which provided Britain with a program of American assistance, hardly compatible with neutrality, and ultimately became the foundation of the Anglo-American alliance during the Second World War.
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