Providing videotape feedback (VTFB) as a form of knowledge of performance (KP) to learners is a common instructional tool in teaching and coaching. VTFB has attracted renewed attention and various “laundry lists” of recommendations (e.g., provide VTFB immediately following performance, use frequently, vary camera angles) on VTFB implementation (e.g., Franks & Maile, 1991; Trinity & Annesi, 1996). Furthermore, researchers have begun exploring the cognitive variables which serve to mediate the impact of VTFB (e.g., Hebert, Landin, & Menickelli, 1998; Menickelli, Landin, Grisham, & Hebert, 2000). Recent research has focused on two key issues: VTFB provided in a self-controlled learning environment and learner’s cognitions during VTFB exposure.
This purpose of this study was to investigate the unique contributions of four augmented feedback modalities on learning a multiple degrees-of-freedom skill: Self-controlled VTFB (SC-VTFB), instructor-controlled VTFB (VTFB), self-controlled verbal KP (SC-KP), and instructor-controlled verbal KP (KP). Also, to examine learner’s cognitions as a potential underlying mechanism of self-controlled VTFB and self-controlled verbal KP. Male, right handed participants (N=48) were randomly assigned to one of the four experimental conditions. The task consisted of performing a forehand throw using a standard flying disc (175 g., 27 cm diameter), commonly referred to as a frisbee.® The dependent measures of the study included throwing form, throwing error measures, and learners’ cognitions during feedback sessions.
In general, the results indicated that both self- and instructor-controlled VTFB was more effective than either self- or instructor-controlled verbal KP in learning a multiple degrees-of-freedom skill. Some support for a self-controlled schedule of feedback was found in that self-controlled learners were able to recognize errors and tendencies in their throwing form early in acquisition. Also, self-controlled learners, regardless of the type of feedback provided, unknowingly requested a fading schedule of feedback. These findings endorsed self-control as a means to cognitively engage learners.