Title page for ETD etd-03262009-132122


Type of Document Dissertation
Author McKnight, Lou Ann
Author's Email Address lmckni2@tigers.lsu.edu
URN etd-03262009-132122
Title Response of Selected Warm-Season Turfgrasses and Ornamental Monocots to Short-Term, High Concentration, Ozone Fumigation
Degree Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)
Department Horticulture
Advisory Committee
Advisor Name Title
Edward Bush Committee Chair
David Picha Committee Member
Jeffery Beasley Committee Member
Paul Wilson Committee Member
Gary Barbee Dean's Representative
Keywords
  • chlorophyll fluorescence
  • turfgrasses
  • xanthophylls
  • ozone
Date of Defense 2009-03-13
Availability unrestricted
Abstract
Ozone (O3), one of the most powerful oxidants known, is phytotoxic at high levels in the troposphere, or ground-level. Effects of acute ozone exposure for two consecutive days was examined on Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon), centipedegrass (Eremochloa ophiuroides), zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica), St. Augustinegrass (Stenotaphrum secundatum), Liriope muscari ‘Big Blue’, Liriope muscari ‘Aztec’, and Ophiopogon japonicus. Zoysiagrass, St. Augustinegrass, Liriope muscari ‘Big Blue’ were used in the second study based on the differential responses found in the study.

Ozone induced severe visual damage to St. Augustinegrass with symptoms appearing as chlorotic streaks. St. Augustinegrass and Liriope muscari had a significant reduction in the maximum quantum yield of PSII electron transport as measured by Fv:Fm ratio, which would indicate no correlation between the visual injury and Fv:Fm. Zoysiagrass and centipedegrass proved to be tolerant to ozone.

The objectives of the second study were to evaluate: 1) response to ozone due to cutting; 2) the use of the SPAD-502 chlorophyll meter as an objective measure of ozone-induced injury; 3) xanthophyll cycle involvement in dissipating light energy due to increased oxidative stress; 4) the relationship of chlorophyll fluorescence coefficients, chlorophyll content, and xanthophyll cycle in the regulation and protection of photosynthesis. Cutting had no significance on any of the parameters in this study.

Centipedegrass with significantly more â-carotene and a quicker engagement of the xanthophylls cycle than the other species in this study was tolerant to increased ozone. This suggests that closing the stomata to exclude ozone is important but does not repair or detoxify the ozone and/or reactive oxygen species that have already entered the leaf. Visual injury differences in the ozone sensitive St. Augustinegrass may be due to the large thin leaves. Liriope with thick fibrous leaves is sensitive to increased ozone but lacked visual injury.

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