Title page for ETD etd-02242014-212940


Type of Document Dissertation
Author Moncada-Reyes, Marvin L.
Author's Email Address mmonca1@tigers.lsu.edu
URN etd-02242014-212940
Title Reduced Sodium Delivery Through Submicronization of Sodium Chloride, Its Use In The Manufacture of Surface Salted Cheese Crackers and The Evaluation of Physico-Chemical, Microbiological and Sensory Characteristics of Cheese Crackers
Degree Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)
Department Animal Science (Animal, Dairy, & Poultry Sciences)
Advisory Committee
Advisor Name Title
Aryana, Kayanush J. Committee Chair
Boeneke, Charles Committee Member
Sabliov, Cristina Committee Member
Sathivel, Subramaniam Dean's Representative
Keywords
  • nanospray drying
  • submicrosalt
  • sodium reduction
Date of Defense 2013-11-12
Availability unrestricted
Abstract
Reducing the particle size of sodium chloride crystal would increase its dissolution rate leading to a more efficient transfer of the ions to the taste buds and hence perhaps a saltier perception of foods. The objective of this study was to develop submicrosalt by using a nanospray drying method, its use in surface salted cheese crackers and evaluating their physico-chemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics. The cheese cracker treatments consisted of 3 different salt sizes (regular, microsalt and submicrosalt) and 3 different concentrations (2, 1.5 and 1%). The 9 (3 sizes x 3 concentrations) different cheese cracker treatments were tested for salt concentration and sodium content at week 1. Water activity, yeast and mold counts, texture-fracturability, color, and consumer test were determined at week 1 and 4 months of storage. Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with repeated measures was used for water activity, yeast and mold counts, texture-fracturability, and color. A Balanced Incomplete Block Design was used to conduct the consumer analysis of cheese crackers for submicrosalt (2, 1.5 and 1%), microsalt (2, 1.5 and1%) and regular 2% (control as used by industry) using 476 participants. Submicrosalt treatments (2, 1.5 and 1%) had positive effect in yeast reduction at 4 months compared to regular salt (2, 1.5 and 1%). There was no mold growth in all treatments at all times. The L*, b*, C* and h* values in all treatments increased significantly (P<0.05) from 1 week to 4 months. At 4 months, submicrosalt treatments (2, 1.5 and 1%) resulted in having significantly (P<0.05) more preferred saltiness scores compared to control (regular 2%). At 4 months, submicrosalt (1.5 and 2%) showed significantly (P<0.05) more preferred just about right saltiness scores compared to control. The reduction of 25 and 50% salt content in cheese cracker through use of submicro particulated salt maintained low counts in yeasts, no counts in molds and did not adversely influence sensory color, aroma, crunchiness, overall liking and acceptability scores, which were the same compared to control and microsalt treatments (2, 1.5 and 1%). Reduction in sodium chloride particle size 1000 fold from regular salt to submicrosalt increased saltiness but reduction in salt size 10 fold from microsalt to submicrosalt did not increase the saltiness of surface salted cheese crackers.
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