Title page for ETD etd-01252005-122056

Type of Document Master's Thesis
Author Lorenz, Nicole F.
Author's Email Address cznicole@yahoo.com
URN etd-01252005-122056
Title Environmental Factors Influencing Incubation Constancy and Recess Frequency in Gadwall (Anas Strepera) in the Prairie Pothole Region of North Dakota
Degree Master of Science (M.S.)
Department Renewable Natural Resources
Advisory Committee
Advisor Name Title
Frank Rohwer Committee Chair
Allen Rutherford Committee Member
Mike Chamberlain Committee Member
  • stage of embryo development
  • endogenous reserves
  • ambient temperatures
  • Julian date
  • late season nesters
Date of Defense 2004-12-17
Availability unrestricted
I examined nest attendance patterns for 132 Gadwall (Anas strepera) females breeding in the prairie pothole region located in Towner County, North Dakota from May to July 2000 - 2001. Overall, Gadwall had a daily incubation constancy of 76.5 10.8%, and daily recess frequency of 2.2 1.1 with each recess lasting 179.8 133.8 minutes. Unlike other waterfowl species, Gadwall increased incubation constancy and decreased recess frequency as daily high temperature increased and showed no change in constancy with precipitation. Gadwall incubation constancy did not fit the body-size hypothesis, as Gadwall have a lower incubation constancy compared to species smaller in size. This may be because Gadwall have the latest peak clutch initiation of all dabbling ducks, providing the advantage of dense nesting cover and warmer ambient temperature compared to earlier nesting species. Of the 132 females, 19 (14%) delayed nocturnal incubation resulting in a significant difference in incubation constancy (P= 0.001) and recess frequency (P = 0.001) from those that did not delay nocturnal incubation. However, components of the incubation rhythms, after the onset of nocturnal incubation were similar for both groups.
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